Asking questions in Albanian.Ερωτήσεις στα αλβανικά.


Pyes
Πιούες
Ρωτάω
To ask


Përgjigjem
Περτζίτζεμ
Απαντώ
To answer

In Albanian questions are formed by putting the using the particle A in front of the question and by reversing the verb with the subject.


Οι ερωτήσεις στα αλβανικά σχηματίζονται βάζοντας μπροστά το ερωτιματικό μόριο Α και αντιστρέφοντας το ρήμα με την προσωπική αντωνυμία. Δηλαδή.

Ajo po punon.
Αϊό πο πουνόν.
Αυτή δουλεύει.
He is working.

A po punon ajo?
Α πο πουνόν αϊό;
Δουλεύει αυτή;
Is he working?


The particle po is used when a action is in progress.

Υπενθυμίζω ότι το po δείχνει ότι το ρήμα είναι σε εξέλιξη τώρα,po punon, δουλεύει τώρα,αυτή τη στιγμή.Δεν σταμάτησε.


Πίσω στα μαθήματα αλβανικών.

Αν σου άρεσε η ανάρτηση ,κάνε μας ένα ψυχικό. Προώθησέ την με τα κουμπιά παρακάτω.
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Meeting people in Georgian-γνωριμίες στα γεωργιανά



გამარჯობა
Hello (inf)
Gamarjoba
Γκάμαρτζόμπα
Γεια σου

რა გქვიათ?
What is your name?
Ra ɡkʰviɑt?
Ρα γκκχβίατ;
Πώς σας λένε;



შენ რა გქვია
What's your name?
Shen ra ɡkʰviɑ?
Σεν Ρα γκκχβία;
Πώς σε λένε;


ჩემი სახელია ___
My name is.....
Chemi sakhelia
Τσέμι σάχελία
Το όνομά μου είναι....


როგორ ხართ?
How are you?(formal)
Rogor khart?
Ρόγκορ Χαρτ;
Πώς είστε;


როგორა ხარ
How are you?(informal)
Rogora khar?
Ρόγκορά Χαρ;
Τί κάνεις;


და თქვენ?
And you?
Ra tkwuen?
Ρα τκουέν;
Και εσύ;

საიდან ხართ?
Where are you from?
Saidan khart?
Σάινταν Χαρτ;
Από πού είστε;

სად ცხოვრობთ?
Where do you live?(formal)
Sad tskhowvrobt?
Σαντ τσχόουβρομπτ;
Που μένετε;


Αν σου άρεσε η ανάρτηση ,κάνε μας ένα ψυχικό. Προώθησέ την με τα κουμπιά παρακάτω.
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Colloquial Bulgarian- βιβλίο εκμάθησης βουλγαρικής

Άλλο ένα βιβλίο της εκπληκτικής σειράς ,το Colloquial Bulgarian, μέθοδος εκμάθησης βουλγάρικων στην καθομιλουμένη. 

Πρόκειται για προηγούμενη έκδοση του βιβλίου ,αυτό όμως δεν σημαίνει ότι είναι και χειρότερη απ' την καινούργια.

Αντίθετα σ' αυτή τη σειρά βιβλίων αλλά και σε άλλες παρατηρείται ότι στις νεότερες εκδόσεις παρουσιάζουν τη γλώσσα με προσανατολισμό πιο πολύ τον τουρίστα. Να μάθει κάποιες  φράσεις για να αντιμετωπίσει.


κάποιες βασικές καταστάσεις στη χώρα που θα επισκευτεί κάμποσες μέρες .

Ενώ όσο πιο πίσω πάμε στην έκδοση βλέπουμε ότι είναι αναλυτικότερη και διδάσκει τη γλώσσα σε μεγαλύτερο βάθος παρ' όλο που θεωρείται πιο παραδοσιακή.

Το βιβλίο βουλγαρικής περιέχει ,βασικό λεξιλόγιο, μετάφραση απλών φράσεων ,πολύ σημαντικές για μένα για την αφομοίωση της γλώσσας, απλούς διαλόγους και υποσημειώσεις βουλγαρικής κουλτούρας.


Μάλιστα κάνει και χρήση τόνων οι οποίοι κανονικά δεν χρησιμοποιούνται προς διευκόλυνση του αναγνώστη για εκμάθηση της σωστής προφοράς των λέξεων.

Η γλώσσα επεξηγήσεων του βιβλίου είναι η αγγλική. Αυτό δεν νομίζω ότι είναι πρόβλημα για το μέσο Έλληνα.

Η βουλγαρική είναι μια νοτιοσλαβική γλώσσα ,πολύ στενά συγγενική της σλαβομακεδονικής η οποία μάλιστα κάποτε θεωρούταν δυτική διάλεκτός της, της πομακικής και πιο απόμακρα της σερβικής. 

Γράφεται σε μια παραλλαγή του κυριλλικού αλφάβητου ,το οποίο πρωτοαναπτύχθηκε στην περιοχή της Βουλγαρίας από μαθητές του Κυρίλλου προς τιμήν του οποίου πήρε το όνομα.

Από αυτό αναπτύχθηκαν και τα άλλα σλαβικά αλφαβήτα βορειότερα.

Η βουλγαρική παρουσιάζει ένα σχετικά πολύπλοκο σύστημα χρονών που δεν συναντάται σε άλλες σλαβικές γλώσσες όπως πχ  στη ρωσική . 

Βέβαια τα βουλγαρικά έχουν ένα σημαντικό κοινό λεξιλόγιο με τα ρωσικά αφού είναι και οι δύο σλαβικές αλλά και έχουν  επηρεαστεί από αυτά επί κομμουνισμού.

Κάποτε τα βουλγαρικά είχαν πλήθος ελληνικών δανείων που πέρασαν στη γλώσσα μετά από αιώνες συναναστροφών με τη Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία. 

Αργότερα ,κοντά στη σύγχρονη εποχή άρχισε συστηματική και συνειδητή εκκαθάριση της γλώσσας από τις ελληνικές λέξεις .

Παρόλα αυτά ελληνικές λέξεις παρέμειναν στη βουλγαρική ακόμα και σε βασικό επίπεδο όπως οι λέξεις :

Эла-элате
Έλα και ελάτε!

Το βιβλίο είναι σε αρκετά καλή κατάσταση ,σχεδόν αχρησιμοποίητο όπως θα δείτε και στο παρακάτω βίντεο.

Αν ενδιαφέρεστε για το βιβλίο μπορείτε να αγοράσετε εδώ.

 



Διάβασε περισσότερα για τη βουλγαρική γλώσσα.
Επίσης για το βουλγαρικό αλφάβητο.

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Illyrian anthroponyms

Greek tombstone with Illyrian names (Colony of Apollonia,South Illyria,200 B.C.)

Anthroponym is called the proper name of a person.

Below follows a list of Illyrian people's names. The Illyrian language is divided by linguists in Illyrian proper( South Illyrian), Dalmatian and Pannonian.

Keep in mind that the name Illyrian was an exonym. It was what Greeks and Romans called the Illyrians. It is not known what the Illyrians called themselves.

South Illyrian (Illyrian proper)
Agirrus
Agron
Andena (female, attested at Dyrrhachium), Andes, Andis, Andio, Andia
Annaeus/Annaius
Antis (female)
Ballaios

Bardyllis ( Connected by some with Albanian bardhë,white or the Messapian bardulos,grey. An Albanian folk etymology is white star from bardhë yll, white star)

Bato, may derive from same root as Latin battuere, "to strike", or the root *bha, "say, tell".
Birkenna
Blodus, Bledis
Boiken
Boria, Bora
Breigos
Brykos
Cleitus/Kleitos (from Greek)
Daors
Dasius
Dazaios, Dazas, Dazos
Ditus
Epe(n)tinus (attested at Dyrrhachium; the name is adjectival, meaning "from Epetium", a town now known as Strobeč)
Epicadus
Epidius
Genthena, Genthios, Gentius
Glaukias (Loan from Greek)
Glavus
Grabos
Laiscus
Madena
Messor
Monunius
Mytilus
Pinnes
Pleuratus
Pladomenus
Plare(n)s
Plator (in Liburnian as Plaetor; Venetic Plaetorius, cp. Latin Plaetorius)
Posantio
Pravaius
Scerdis
Skerdilaidas
Tatta
Temus, Temeia
Teuda
Teuta, Teutana means Queen in Illyrian.
Tito, Titus (also the Illyrian name of the river Krka)
Vendes
Verzo
Zanatis
Ziraeus


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Paleo-Balkan languages

Paleo-Balkan are called the Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkan peninsula during ancient times.

All these languages have disappeared without leaving any descendants with the exception of Ancient Greek and the language from which Albanian came from (it is still unknown what it was, only assumptions are made)  due to Hellenization, Latinization  and Slavisization.


Most of these languages are very poorly attested to allow safe conclusions about their affiliation with each other.

Ancient Greek and Roman writers mention that the following languages were spoken in the Balkans: 

Ancient Greek, Venetian, Dacian, Thracian, Illyrian,Liburnian, Paeonian, Phrygian (Brygian) and Celtic. 

Ancient Macedonian
A language that was spoken in the Ancient kingdom of Macedon now considered to be a dialect of northwest Greek with Doric traits or a sister language to Greek proper that form a Greco-Macedonian branch (Hellenic).

Macedonian may had been influenced more or less by Illyrian and Thracian.

Only one long text has been found thought to be in Ancient Macedonian, the Pella curse tablet written in a distinct northwest Greek dialect,found in the Macedonian capital of Pella.

Illyrian
Little is known about the Illyrian language. There are no inscriptions found in Illyrian. Only names of rivers,people and places considered to be Illyrian. Some reconstructed Illyrian words exist that are debatable.

It is divided in south Illyrian (Illyrian proper) and Dalmatian-Pannonian.
The Illyrian language.
Illyrian is considered by some the anscestor of Albanian. The fact is that we know so little about Illyrian that it cannot be safely connected to Albanian at the moment. 

The Messapian language in Apulia, southern Italy is considered by some to be a dialect of Illyrian but nowadays the mainstream view is that is was related to Illyrian but it was a distinct language.

Thracian
Thracian is known by a few inscriptions written in the Greek alphabet. It may have been related to Illyrian but its connection to it is unclear.

It is considered,though a dialect of the same language along with Dacian forming the Daco-Thracian branch.
The Ezerovo ring with an inscription in the Thracian language written in Greek letters.

Dacian 
It comes in two varieties ,Dacian proper that was spoken north of the Danube River and Daco-Moesian south of the Danube in modern day Northern Bulgaria.

Dacian is known by some place names, names of people and a list of plants found in Dacia written by Dioscorides.

Thracian and Dacian are considered two versions of the same language.

It has been proposed by linguists that a dialect continuum existed in the Balkans with Illyrian in one side and Daco-Thracian in the other.

Paeonian 
Even less is known about the Paeonian language that was spoken north of Macedon. Some Paeonian kings had Greek names and later Paeonians became Hellenized.

Some linguists have proposed a Paeonian-Macedonian-Greek language branch within Indo-European.

Phrygian
Phrygians lived in the Balkans before settling in Asia Minor after the Bronze Age Collapse that saw the Hittite Empire disappear in the area.

Phrygian was spoken in the Balkans initially by the Phrygians who were then called Brygians according to the Ancient Macedonians.

Phrygian is well attested in Asia minor with many inscriptions in the Phrygian and then Greek alphabet.

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Coptic greetings.

ⲭⲉⲣⲉ
khārā
Hello (from Greek χαίρε)

ⲭⲉⲣⲉ ⲛⲁⲕ
Khere nak
Hello (to male)

ⲭⲉⲣⲉ ⲛⲉ
Khere ne
Hello. (To female)

ⲛⲟϥⲣⲓ
Nofri
Hi,hello.

ⲛⲁⲛⲉ ⲧⲟⲟⲩⲓ.
nane to-oui 
Good morning

ⲛⲁⲛⲉ ⲣⲟϩⲓ
Nane rohi
Good evening

ⲛⲟϥⲣⲓ ⲉϩⲟⲟⲩ
Nofri ehoou
Good day

ⲁϣ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲉⲣⲕⲏϯ
Ash pe perkēti?
How are you?

ⲟⲩϫⲁⲓ
oujai
Bye

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The language of the Pharaohs lives on!

Coptic is the descendant of Ancient Egyptian (Medu neter, divine words) which survived up to the 17nth century as a spoken language.


Nevertheless it still survives as a liturgical language of the Christian Coptic Church in Egypt.It is estimated that there are about six and a half million Coptic Christians today.

Compare Ancient Egyptian medu (words) with Coptic Ⲙⲉⲧ (met). 


The liturgical language is based on the Bohairic dialect which was spoken in Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta.

It eventually fell out of use and was fully replaced by Egyptian Arabic in eveyday life.

Coptic cross

Coptic dialects

Coptic was divided in six major dialects the most prominent Bohairic and Sahidic. The differences are in phonology, morphology and some grammar but they are not significant enough to set them far apart.

Coptic dialects
Coptic dialects

Coptic belongs to the Afro-Asiatic macro family along with Arabic and Hebrew.It evolved from Demotic Egyptian during late antiquity.

Egypt in Coptic 

Coptic 
ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Khēmi
ⲕⲏⲙⲉ Kēme

Arabic 
قبط‎
Qibt

Ancient Egyptian
Kmt
Kemet
Kemet- the black land- Egypt

Coptic and Greek

There is widespread misconception that the Greek alphabet was adopted for Coptic by Christians. But this is not the case.

Greek presence in Egypt started in the 7nth century BCE when Greeks founded the trade colony of Naucratis in the Nile Delta. Then numerous cities were established in Cyrenaica. Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria after conquering Egypt naming it after him. 
 


After the death of Alexander ,during the Ptolemaic rule of Egypt, Greek became the common language. Next came the Roman Empire which didn't change the linguistic status quo in the East and then followed by the Greek speaking Byzantine Empire. 

As a consequence, the Greek alphabet started being used to write Ancient Egyptian then Coptic early before Christian times. Some additional letters were used from Demotic Egyptian to represent sounds not found in Greek.


The alphabet wasn't the only thing Coptic adopted from  Greek- a lot of Greek words and phrases were introduced,too. All previous Egyptian religious terms were replaced by Greek after the adoption of Christianity.

Some phrases in Coptic

ⲭⲉⲣⲉ
khārā
Hello (from Greek χαίρε)

ⲛⲟϥⲣⲓ
Nofri
Hi,hello.

ⲛⲁⲛⲉ ⲧⲟⲟⲩⲓ.
nanā to-oui 
Good morning

ⲟⲩϫⲁⲓ
oujai
Bye

ⲥⲉⲡϩⲙⲟⲧ
sephmot
Thanx 


Ⲡⲓⲭⲣⲓⲥⲧⲟⲥⲁϥⲧⲱⲛϥ !
Pikhristos Aftōnf
Christ is risen!


ⲁⲕⲉⲣ ⲟⲩ? 
aker ou?(m.)
How are you?


ⲁⲣⲉⲉⲣ ⲟⲩ? 
areer ou? (f.)
How are you?

ⲁⲣⲉⲧⲉⲛⲉⲣ ⲟⲩ? 
aretener ou? (pl.) 
How are you?

Ⲙⲉⲧ
Met
Words, language

ⲘⲉⲧⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ 
Met Remenkēmi
Coptic language

ϯⲘⲉⲧⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ
TiMetRemenkēmi
the Coptic language.

ϯ
Ti
the 
definite article

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Sample text

John 1:1 in Coptic

ϩⲛ̅ ⲧⲉϩⲟⲩⲉⲓⲧⲉ ⲛⲉϥϣⲟⲟⲡ ⲛ̅ϭⲓ ⲡϣⲁϫⲉ. ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡϣⲁϫⲉ ⲛⲉϥϣⲟⲟⲡ ⲛ̅ⲛⲁϩⲣⲙ̅ ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ. ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲉⲩⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲡⲉ ⲡϣⲁϫⲉ. 

hn̅ tehoueite nefšoop n̅ci pšaje. auô pšaje nefšoop n̅nahrm̅ pnoute. auô neunoute pe pšaje. 

In the beginning was the word, and the word was in the presence of the god, and the word was a god.

ⲡϣⲁϫⲉ
Pshaje 
Word

ⲁⲩⲱ
Auo
And

ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ
Pnoute
The god

ⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ
Noute
God
Ancient Egyptian neter (divine).

 


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Coptic pronouns- κοπτικές αντωνυμίες

The pronouns below are in the Bohairic dialect.
Οι αντωνυμίες παρακάτω είναι στην μποχαϊρική διάλεκτο.


ⲁⲛⲁⲕ
anak 
ανακ

I
εγώ

ⲁⲛⲟⲛ
Anon
Άνον

We
Εμείς


ⲛⲑⲟⲕ
Nthok
Νθόκ

You (sg,m.)
Εσύ

Ⲛⲑⲟ
Ntho 
You 
(sg.f.)

ⲛⲑⲱⲧⲉⲛ
Nthōten
Νθώτεν

You (pl.)
εσείς


ⲛⲑⲟⲥ
nthos
Νθος

She
Αυτή


ⲛⲑⲟϥ
Nthof
Νθοφ

He
Αυτός


ⲛⲑⲱⲟⲩ
Nthou
Νθόου

They
Αυτοί


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