Paleo-Iberian or Iberian are the languages spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the Romans arrived, without taking into account the languages spoken in the colonies, such as Greek and Phoenician.

With the exception of Basque, they have all disappeared and have been replaced by Latin, with the only evidence of their existence being the few inscriptions that have been found and the references in the sources.

Of these inscriptions, which date from the 5th century BC to about the 1st century AD, Iberian, Tartessian, Celtic and Lusitanian are known, while other languages are known from place names, human names and theonyms known from Greek and Latin sources.

The Iberian language

inscription in the Greco-Iberian alphabet from Alcoa
Iberian was the language of the Iberian people who, according to Greco-Roman sources, lived on the eastern and southern coasts of the peninsula.

A Greco-Iberian alphabet had even been developed which was a variant of the Ionic alphabet. Inscriptions in this alphabet have been found mainly in Alicante and Murcia.

The Iberian language is thought to have been unlike any known language of the past or present.

Celtic was an Indo-European language spoken by the Celts of the Iberian Peninsula in the central and northern regions.It is attested by about 100 inscriptions (2nd BC-1st AD) written in the Celtic and Latin alphabets.

Of the continental Celtic languages, Celtic is less well documented than Old French but more so than Alpine and Gaelic.

the Tartessian language
Tartessian was spoken in the southwest of the peninsula and is thought to have been the language of Tartessus.

The Turdetans of the Roman period were thought to be the heirs of the Tartessian civilization and according to Strabo ''were the wisest of the Iberians with an alphabet, extensive records of their histories, poems and laws written 6,000 years ago ,as they claim.

Tartessian has not yet been categorized,and efforts are being made to classify it among the Celtic languages,but so far this theory has not been supported.

All these Paleo-Hispanic languages have left a lexicological substrate in Spanish.

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