Why did the Mongols Leave Europe?

The mysterious withdrawal of the Mongol army from Europe in 1242.

After conquering Eastern Europe and occupying Hungary for a year, Batu and his forces suddenly halted their advance and returned to the Eurasian steppes. 

Several theories attempt to explain this move, including the "political theory" attributing it to Ögedei Khan's death, the "geographical or ecological theory" suggesting environmental difficulties, the "limited goals theory," and the "military weakness theory." 

While each theory presents some evidence, they contradict one another on key points.The "ecological theory" suggests that Europe could not support the pasture requirements of the Mongol horses, but later research suggests that Hungary's pastures could have sustained more animals than initially estimated. 

Moreover, evidence of a severe famine in Hungary during the invasion does not appear in Mongol sources, and the Mongols repeatedly demanded submission from European powers after their departure.

The "military weakness theory" is also dismissed as the Mongols won major clashes and sacked important cities. However, the Mongols experienced losses in battles against the Hungarians and Poles and faced difficulty conquering strategically situated stone castles. Batu Khan may have concluded that continuing the advance would overextend his forces.

Additionally, there are rumors that Mongol shamans forbade a return to Hungary due to bad omens. The reasons behind the Mongol departure from Europe remain unclear, and ongoing debates aim to shed light on this intriguing historical mystery.

The Norman conquest of England.

The Norman Conquest was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Normans, French, Flemish, and Bretons, led by William, Duke of Normandy, who became William I of England. 

The conquest resulted in profound political, administrative, and social changes in the British Isles.

Some of the main events of the Norman Conquest were: 

The death of King Edward the Confessor in January 1066 and the succession of Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, who faced rival claims from William of Normandy, Harald Hardrada of Norway, and Tostig Godwinson, Harold’s brother. 

The invasion of Harald Hardrada and Tostig in northern England in September 1066 and their defeat by Harold at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. 

The landing of William and his army at Pevensey in southern England on 28 September and their victory over Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October, where Harold was killed. 

The resistance of the English nobility and the rebellions in various regions, especially in the north, which William suppressed with harsh measures, such as the Harrying of the North in 1069-1070. 

The coronation of William as King of England on 25 December 1066 at Westminster Abbey and his establishment of a new feudal system, a new Norman-French elite, and a new administrative and legal framework. 

The completion of the Domesday Book in 1086, a comprehensive survey of the land and property of England, which reflected the changes brought by the conquest.

Norman English.

Norman English is a term that refers to the varieties of English spoken in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. Norman English was influenced by the Anglo-Norman language, which was a dialect of Old Norman that was used by the ruling class of Normans, French, Flemings, and Bretons. ¹²

Some of the features of Norman English were:

- The introduction of many words of French origin, especially in the domains of law, government, religion, art, and literature. For example, words like *parliament*, *jury*, *justice*, *royal*, *poetry*, and *romance* are all derived from French. ³
- The loss of some inflections and grammatical gender in nouns, adjectives, and pronouns. For example, the Old English words *se* (masculine), *seo* (feminine), and *þæt* (neuter) for 'the' were replaced by the French-derived *the*. 
- The simplification of some consonant clusters and the reduction of some vowels in unstressed syllables. For example, the Old English word *hlaford* ('lord') became *laverd* in Norman English. 
- The adoption of some French spelling conventions, such as the use of *qu* for *cw*, *ch* for *c*, and *sh* for *sc*. For example, the Old English words *cwen* ('queen'), *cyning* ('king'), and *scip* ('ship') became *quene*, *ching*, and *ship* in Norman English. 

Norman English was gradually replaced by Middle English, which was influenced by other dialects of English, such as those spoken in the north and west of England, as well as by the standardization efforts of writers like Geoffrey Chaucer and John Wycliffe.


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